<P>Page 20 » Across the Divide » Hotez / England & Desmond / Madani / Asghar Almost 60 million children require deworming for their intestinal helminth infections; most of those children are in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan (21, 22). Despite widespread emerging and neglected diseases in the region, currently, the Global Health Initiative (GHI), which combines U.S. government agencies linked to global health in more than 70 countries (23), does not report any operations in the seven hot-spot countries listed above (24). Similarly, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) NTD Program does not support activities in these nations (25). However, USAID is engaged in important initiatives to strengthen public health systems that emphasize maternal and child health in Afghanistan, Egypt, Pakistan, and Yemen (26–29), while, in Egypt, USAID, partly in collaboration with a U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit, is expanding infectious disease surveillance e?orts, with a program to investigate drug-resistant microbes and hospital-acquired infections (29). INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ON ANTIPOVERTY VACCINES TO COMBAT NTDS Several of the most serious NTDs now a?ecting the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia, especially in the hot-spot seven countries, could potentially be controlled or eliminated through the development, testing, and, ultimately, delivery of new vaccines. For the diseases listed in Box 1, including cutaneous leishmaniasis, dengue fever, and hookworm infection (one of three major intestinal helminth infections), some studies have con?rmed the potential cost-e?ectiveness of new vaccines if they were developed (30–32). Currently, several multinational pharmaceutical manufacturers are developing and testing new dengue vaccines (33), but, for cutaneous leishmaniasis, hookworm infection, and other intestinal helminth infections, the development of these so-called antipoverty vaccines is being led by nonpro?t product development partnerships (PDPs), including our Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Childrens Hospital Center for Vaccine Development (30, 34, 35). Science vaccine diplomacy is one speci?c component of vaccine diplomacy, one that I de?ned previously as the joint development of life-saving vaccines and related technologies, with the major actors typically scientists, including scientists </p> <UL><LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/1/1/">Front-Cover</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/2/2/">Inside-Front-Cover</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/3/3/">Page-1</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/4/4/">Page-2</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/5/5/">Page-3</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/6/6/">Page-4</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/7/7/">Page-5</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/8/8/">Page-6</a></LI> <LI><a 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