<P>from nations that often disagree ideologically or even nations that are actively engaged in hostile action (4). One of the outstanding historical examples of vaccine science diplomacy is the joint development of the oral polio vaccine between the United States and the former Soviet Union during the late 1950s and early 1960s (4, 12). Today, there is the potential for U.S. scientists to collaborate in vaccine development and production with the ?ve OIC developing country vaccine manufacturers in Egypt (Vacsera), Indonesia (Biofarma), Iran (Razi Vaccine and Serum Institute and Pasteur Institute of Tehran), and Saudi Arabia (Arabio) (36–38). In the hot-spot countries, it would be exciting to explore partnerships for leishmaniasis and helminth vaccines with the vaccine manufacturers located in Egypt and Iran. Together with Mohammad Rokni from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, we previously highlighted the opportunity for collaborations between U.S.-based PDPs and Irans major vaccine developer, the Razi Serum and Vaccine Institute (17), or Tehrans Pasteur Institute. A key point is, just as Dr. Albert Sabin developed the oral polio vaccine jointly with the Soviets during the Cold War (4), it should be possible for U.S. and Iranian scientists to collaborate for producing vaccines to combat </p> <UL><LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/1/1/">Front-Cover</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/2/2/">Inside-Front-Cover</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/3/3/">Page-1</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/4/4/">Page-2</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/5/5/">Page-3</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/6/6/">Page-4</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/7/7/">Page-5</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/8/8/">Page-6</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/9/9/">Page-7</a></LI> 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