<P>Page 62 »On the Ground Thirty years ago, to be HIV+ was a death sentence. Thanks to remarkable medical advances, if the disease is detected and treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), people who are HIV+ can now live near-normal lives. The medication costs only a few hundred dollars a year, and it can be adminis- tered within the evolving capacities of most health systems. The existence of this new treatment has fundamentally changed the ethics of treatment and, in consequence, the economics of health care in countries with a high prevalence of HIV+ people. If, with near-certainty, an early death can be averted and replaced by a healthy life at the cost of only a few hundred dollars a year, there is a reason- able presumption that somewhere, globally, there resides a moral duty of rescue. And once a person is being treated, to end that treatment would be tantamount to homicide. This does not mean that such a duty of rescue is unquali?ed. Some societies are too poor to meet it. In a world of economic scarcity, many desirable actions are not feasible, and so costs have to be taken into account alongside bene?ts. In a society where average per capita income is only a few hundred dollars, where a substantial percentage of the population is HIV+, and where there are many other calls on very limited public revenues, people may entirely reasonably refuse to recognize a duty of rescue for HIV+ su?erers. But at the present global average living standard of about $6,000 per capita per year, a cost of $400 to rescue a year of healthy life is su?ciently a?ordable that globally there is such a duty, wherever it might lie. Another quali?cation is that the duty of rescue depends on the behavioral choices of the person in jeopardy. If an adult person puts themselves in jeopardy through persistent behavior that a reasonable person would regard as foolhardy, they may reasonably be regarded as having forfeit- ed the right to rescue. However, in Africa and other low-income regions, Page 62 »On the Ground MEDICINE, MORALITY, AND ECONOMICS Paul Collier, Ph.D. People who are HIV+ can now live near-normal lives. - PAUL COLLIER</p> <UL><LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/1/1/">Front-Cover</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/2/2/">Inside-Front-Cover</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/3/3/">Page-1</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/4/4/">Page-2</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/5/5/">Page-3</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/6/6/">Page-4</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/7/7/">Page-5</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/8/8/">Page-6</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/643/colfslwvw/9/9/">Page-7</a></LI> <LI><a 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