<P>CULTURES Vol 1, Issue 3 » Page 31 Optical instruments also play a crit- ical role in the diagnostics of human GLVHDVHVZLWKWKHXVHRI?HOGPLFUR- scopes. Rugged microscopy infra- structure for disease diagnostics is almost nonexistent in developing countries. More than one billion peo- ple in the world today are at extreme risk of infectious diseases (including malaria, Chagas, giardiasis and a large number of neglected tropical diseas- HV ZLWKQRVFDODEOHVROXWLRQLQSODFH Although microscopy is the gold stan- dard for many infectious diseases in developing countries, a critical missing piece of the puzzle is an ultra-low-cost, KLJKSHUIRUPDQFHVROXWLRQIRU?HOG microscopy that can truly be scaled to billions of tests every year. Anoth- er puzzle is training a large number of health workers capable of delivering KLJKTXDOLW\\GLDJQRVWLFVDQGKHDOWK services in remote settings. FRUGAL SCIENCE My interest in getting back to my own roots was revived several years ago, when I took upon myself to spend at least half of my academic time thinking about frugal science. I spent some of this time in the ?HOGDQGVHHLQJWKHVWDWHRIWKHLQIUDVWUXFWXUHIRUKHDOWKFDUHDQG WKHUROHRIPLFURVFRS\\PDGHPHUHYLVLWWKLVTXHVWLRQ WRJHWKHU ZLWKVWXGHQWVIURPP\\ODERUDWRU\\ :HJRWWRWKLQNLQJDERXWWKH problem of scale and constraints. Every design solution should start with a problem and constraint in mind, and we put some very strict constraints on our solution space. 7U\\LQJWRJUDSSOHZLWKDOOWKHVHTXHVWLRQVUHFHQWO\\P\\ODERUDWRU\\ has demonstrated Foldscope, an origami-based optical microscope WKDWFDQEHDVVHPEOHGYLDIROGLQJD?DWVKHHWRISDSHULQPLQXWHV Although it costs less than a dollar in parts, it can provide over 2,000× PDJQL?FDWLRQZLWKVXEPLFURQUHVROXWLRQLVHWUHPHO\\OLJKWZHLJKW and compact (70 × 20 × 2 mm3 RSHUDWHVZLWKQRHWHUQDOSRZHULV</p> <UL><LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/707/arcswnjom/1/1/">Front-Cover</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/707/arcswnjom/2/2/">Inside-Front-Cover</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/707/arcswnjom/3/3/">Page-1</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/707/arcswnjom/4/4/">Page-2</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.mzines.net/publication/707/arcswnjom/5/5/">Page-3</a></LI> <LI><a 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